Thyroid peroxidase, antibodies (ATPO)
Why this test?
- First of all, to detect various autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland: - Hashimoto's thyroiditis, - diffuse toxic goiter, - postpartum thyroiditis, - autoimmune thyroiditis, - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism in newborns.
- For the study of the thyroid gland in newborns in order to make sure of the absence of disorders, if antibodies to thyroperoxidase or postpartum thyroiditis were detected in the mother.
- To establish or exclude the autoimmune nature of a particular thyroid disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland without disruption of its function, primary hypo- or hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, etc.)
In what cases is it prescribed?
- With symptoms of a violation of the normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
- When the results of other tests indicate a violation of the function of the thyroid gland.
- Where long-term monitoring of the health of a patient with thyroid disease is necessary, which includes conducting laboratory tests at certain time intervals as a control of the effectiveness of treatment.
- If considering the possibility of prescribing therapy associated with the risk of developing hypothyroidism as a result of the appearance of at-TPO (lithium drugs, amiodarone, interferon alpha, interleukin-2).
- If necessary, find out the causes of miscarriage, preeclampsia, premature birth, unsuccessful attempts at artificial insemination - this may be due to the effect of specific antibodies.
- If the results of other tests (on T3, T4 and / or TSH) indicate thyroid dysfunction.
- With an autoimmune disease that initially did not affect the function of the thyroid gland (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pernicious anemia, systemic autoimmune vasculitis, insulin-dependent diabetes), if symptoms appear that the thyroid gland is involved in this process.
- If the patient belongs to a high-risk group for autoimmune thyroiditis (such as pregnant women with a family history of this disease).
Information about the test
This analysis is intended for the determination of specific antibodies to the tissues of the thyroid gland in blood serum - at-TPO. They are formed when the human immune system mistakenly recognizes the tissues of the thyroid gland as a foreign biological substance, which can lead to thyroiditis, damage to the tissues of the gland and various disorders of its function.
The thyroid gland synthesizes a number of vitally important hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are of great importance in the regulation of metabolism. In turn, the work of the thyroid gland is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which ensures adequate production of thyroid hormones depending on the body's needs.
The harmful effect of antibodies on various biochemical structures can lead to a violation of the normal production of thyroid hormones and negatively affect the regulation of its function, which ultimately causes chronic pathologies associated with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism manifests itself in the form of such symptoms as weight gain, the appearance of goiter, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, increased sensitivity to cold. Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by sweating, rapid heartbeat, anxiety, tremors in the limbs, weakness, sleep disturbances, weight loss, exophthalmos.
The thyroid gland enzyme thyroperoxidase plays a key role in the formation of thyroid hormones. Thyroperoxidase is involved in the formation of the active form of iodine, without which the biochemical synthesis of thyroid hormones T4 and T3 is impossible.
The appearance of antibodies to this enzyme in the blood disrupts its normal function, as a result of which the production of the corresponding hormones decreases. Quantitative analysis of blood serum for antibodies to thyroperoxidase is the most sensitive method of diagnosing autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland. Deviation from the norm of its results is an early sign of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and diffuse toxic goiter (base disease).
Modern highly sensitive methods of antibodies detection to thyroperoxidase make it possible to correctly diagnose 95% of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 85% of patients with diffuse toxic goiter. During pregnancy, at-TPO can significantly affect the development of the thyroid gland and the health of the future child, as they are able to penetrate through the placental barrier from the mother's blood into the body of the fetus. At-TPO levels are often elevated in other thyroid diseases, such as idiopathic hypothyroidism, adenoma, and cancer, as well as in all types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, insulin-dependent diabetes, autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, and pernicious anemia. , which in some cases indicates the involvement of the thyroid gland in this pathological process. Therapy with some drugs (amiodarone, lithium drugs, interferon) can also cause the appearance of antibodies to thyroperoxidase.