Why this test?
To assess the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and their complications.
To calculate apolipoprotein b / apolipoprotein a1 - a coefficient that is sometimes used instead of the atherogenicity coefficient to assess the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (along with the apolipoprotein b test).
In what cases is it prescribed?
If an elevated level of total cholesterol is detected.
If the patient's relatives had cases of cardiovascular diseases and their complications at a young age.
If there is a suspicion of genetically determined deficiency of apolipoprotein a.
If hyperlipidemia is suspected in the patient, which is caused by apolipoprotein a1 deficiency.
If previous test results have shown a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, if the patient follows a diet with restriction of animal fats and / or takes lipid-lowering drugs - statins (to determine whether the target level of lipid values is reached and the risk of cardiovascular diseases is reduced).
Risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases include: smoking, age (for men over 45 years old, for women over 55 years old), increased blood pressure (140/90 mm hg and above), high cholesterol or cardiovascular diseases in other family members (heart attack or stroke in the closest male relative younger than 55 years old, female - younger than 65 years old), ischemic heart disease, previous myocardial infarction or stroke, diabetes, excess body weight, alcohol abuse, eating a large amount of food containing animal fats, low physical activity.
Apolipoproteins are the protein part of lipid complexes, with the help of which lipids are transported with blood in the body.
They provide solubility by covering the water-insoluble cholesterol core. Lipoproteins bind to cholesterol and triglycerides and provide transport of these lipids to organs and tissues. High-density lipoprotein (hdl) contains the so-called good cholesterol. They are the only physiological factor that ensures the release of cells from excess cholesterol. Hdls transport cholesterol from tissues to the liver, where it is excreted from the body or undergoes biochemical transformations for disposal. This is of great importance, for example, for the vessel walls, which are thus protected from atherosclerotic changes.
Atherosclerotic plaques that appear with an excess of cholesterol limit the movement of blood through vessels, make their walls less elastic, which greatly increases the risk of heart diseases (ischemic disease, heart attack) and stroke.
Apolipoprotein a activates biochemical processes that "loaded" cholesterol from tissues into hdl. It has two forms: apolipoprotein a1, which predominates in the body, and apolipoprotein a2, which is approximately three times less than the first.
To assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases, the determination of the first form of apolipoprotein a is most often used, a decrease in the concentration of which indicates an increase in the probability of atherosclerotic changes.