Why this test?
As a tumor marker for some types of blood cell cancer, as well as for detecting kidney damage and for distinguishing between glomerular and tubular kidney diseases.
The analysis for beta-2-microglobulin does not allow diagnosing the disease, but it provides additional information about the probable development of the disease, as well as about the state of the patient's kidneys. To determine the severity of multiple myeloma and identify the stage of the disease, sometimes to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
Beta-2-microglobulin is associated with tumor mass and can help predict the prognosis of cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma. To assess the degree of kidney damage, as well as to determine the difference between diseases affecting the renal glomerulus capsules and renal tubules (along with other tests on kidney function: research of nitrogen in the composition of blood urea, creatine and microalbumin).
To examine kidney transplant patients for signs of rejection, and to monitor patients who have been in contact with high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. To find out how much the disease affects the central nervous system.
In what cases is it prescribed?
In the case of a diagnosis of multiple myeloma in order to establish the stage of the disease and to periodically monitor the effectiveness of treatment. In addition, this study is often necessary in leukemia and lymphoma to help predict the further development of the disease.
With symptoms of kidney dysfunction and in cases where it is necessary to determine whether the disease affects the capsule of the renal glomerulus or the renal tubules.
During periodic examination of patients with transplanted kidneys and patients who were in contact with elevated concentrations of cadmium and mercury.
If diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma are suspected to affect the central nervous system.
The protein beta-2-microglobulin is on the surface of almost all cells of the human body. It is present in most physiological fluids, its level in blood serum increases in multiple myeloma, lymphoma and inflammatory processes in the body.
The analysis determines the content of beta-2-microglobulin in the blood, urine and occasionally in the cerebrospinal fluid.
In the kidneys, beta-2-microglobulin passes through the filters of the renal glomerulus capsules and is then absorbed by the renal tubules, which filter back water, proteins, vitamins, salts and other substances necessary for the body. Normally, only a small amount of beta-2-microglobulin is contained in the urine, but if the renal tubules are damaged or infected, its concentration increases due to a decrease in reabsorption. After dialysis in patients with kidney disease, beta-2-microglobulin can form long molecular chains that cause deposition in joints and tissues, causing discomfort and pain. This disease is called amyloidosis associated with beta-2-microglobulin dialysis. The level of beta-2-microglobulin is sometimes increased in the cerebrospinal fluid in leukemia and lymphoma and in chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis and viruses such as HIV that affect the brain.