Helicobacter pylori, IgA antibodies
Why this test?
For the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori, among other research methods, for symptoms of gastritis and/or gastric ulcer.
To determine the severity of Helicobacter infection and/or inflammatory process in the wall of the stomach and/or duodenum.
To assess the effectiveness of treatment measures for helicobacter infection.
For the diagnosis of helicobacteriosis in high-risk groups for the purpose of preventive treatment.
In what cases is it prescribed?
With symptoms of gastritis, duodenitis and / or peptic ulcer disease of the stomach or duodenum: pain, heaviness in the upper abdomen after eating, nausea, heartburn, unpleasant and / or sour taste in the mouth and / or bad breath, belching sour.
Where it is necessary to assess the severity of the inflammatory / infectious process caused by Helicobacter pylori.
If during the treatment of helicobacteriosis it became necessary to assess the adequacy of therapeutic measures or their final results.
In the course of conducting preventive examinations of persons with an increased risk of developing gastritis and/or gastric ulcer in order to take measures to prevent the disease.
Helicobacter pylori (helicobacter pylori), IgA, are specific immunoglobulins (immune antibodies) of class A to Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Test for Helicobacter pylori, IgA (quantitative), is a laboratory study of blood serum by the enzyme immunoassay method, which is carried out to detect an infection caused by Helicobacter pylori in the wall of the stomach and duodenum based on the IgA titer to this type of pathogen. Helicobacter pylori is a type of microorganisms that can infect the mucous membrane of the stomach and / or duodenum and under certain circumstances can cause gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcer disease of the stomach and duodenum, as well as malignant tumors of the stomach. The name Helicobacter pylori is literally translated as spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the gate of the stomach.
The importance of Helicobacter pylori in the development of diseases of the stomach and duodenum has been proven relatively recently. For a long time, it was believed that bacteria cannot exist in the acidic environment of the stomach. Intensive research in this area was started in the early 80s of the 20th century. Until now, a large amount of data on this problem has been accumulated, and the therapy of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease by eliminating helicobacteriosis is a generally accepted practice. Helicobacteriosis is the most common infection worldwide. It is believed that 60% of the world's population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori.
At the same time, in developing countries, the prevalence of this infection is much higher (up to 100% of the adult population) than in developed countries (20-65%), which is associated with the influence of sanitary and hygienic living conditions of people. In most cases, infection occurs in childhood, the pathogen is transmitted from person to person. The presence of infection in parents is a factor of increased risk of infection in children.
However, only a small proportion of infected individuals may develop obvious symptoms of the disease, and this may occur after a significant period of time (months and years) after infection. After entering the stomach, Helicobacter pylori is introduced into the mucus layer covering the stomach wall and penetrates deep into the cells of the mucous membrane. There, bacteria begin to produce ammonia and enzymes that break down gastric mucus.
Ammonia reduces the acidity of gastric juice, which reflexively increases its formation and secretion by the stomach. The destruction of mucus leads to a violation of its layer, which protects the mucous membrane from self-digestion, resulting in chemical damage to the stomach wall. In addition, Helicobacter pylori produces specific toxins that cause an immune reaction from the body, as well as structural changes and cell death of the stomach wall and/or duodenum.
The combination of all these factors leads to inflammation, and in more severe cases - to ulcers. However, there is no clear relationship between the presence of an infection and the severity of the disease, and in many cases there are no signs of health problems at all.
Currently, this is explained by the fact that there are several varieties of Helicobacter pylori, which have different abilities to cause disease - from very aggressive to almost harmless. In addition, various additional factors are important, which can contribute to the weakening of the body and the creation of favorable conditions for the development of the disease: nutritional characteristics, reduced immunity, chronic fatigue, etc.
The disease can be manifested by pain, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating, nausea, heartburn, an unpleasant and / or sour taste in the mouth and / or bad breath, sour belching. The development of the infectious process is accompanied by an immune reaction from the body. One of the manifestations of immune protection is the accumulation of specific immunoglobulins (antibodies): IgA and IgG in the blood. Laboratory analysis of blood serum for these antibodies is used in the complex diagnosis of helicobacteriosis. IgA is detected 2-3 weeks after infection and possibly several years later. Thus, detection of IgA indicates Helicobacter pylori infection.
The absence of a decrease in IgA titers over time is a sign of unabated activity of the infectious process. In addition, IgA is responsible for immune protection directly at the site of the infectious process (local immunity). In this regard, it is believed that the level of IgA depends on the severity of inflammation in the wall of the stomach / duodenum.
Successful treatment is accompanied by a decrease in the level of IgA, which makes it possible to judge the effectiveness of the therapy from the analysis. The results of the analysis are given in quantitative form in the form of the value of the antibody titer. The titer of antibodies reflects the degree of intensity of the infectious process.