Why this test?
For the diagnosis by insulin (pancreatic tumors) and to find out the causes of acute or chronic hypoglycemia (together with a test for glucose and C-peptide).
To monitor endogenous insulin synthesized by beta cells.
To detect insulin resistance.
To find out when patients suffering from type 2 diabetes need to start taking insulin or hypoglycemic drugs.
In what cases is it prescribed?
With low blood glucose and / or with symptoms of hypoglycemia: sweating, strong heartbeat, regular feeling of hunger, clouding of consciousness, blurred vision, dizziness, weakness, with heart attacks.
If necessary, find out whether the insulinoma was successfully removed, as well as timely diagnose possible recurrences.
When monitoring the results of islet cell transplantation (by determining the ability of transplants to produce insulin).
Insulin is synthesized in beta cells of the endocrine part of the pancreas. Its concentration in the blood directly depends on the concentration of glucose: after eating a large amount of glucose enters the blood, in response to this, the pancreas secretes insulin, which triggers the mechanisms of moving glucose from the blood into the cells of tissues and organs.
Insulin also regulates biochemical processes in the liver: if there is a lot of glucose, the liver begins to store it in the form of glycogen (glucose polymer) or use it for the synthesis of fatty acids. When the synthesis of insulin is disturbed and it is produced less than necessary, glucose cannot enter the cells of the body and hypoglycemia develops. Cells begin to experience a lack of the main substrate they need for energy production - glucose. If such a condition is chronic, then the metabolism is disturbed and pathologies of the kidneys, cardiovascular and nervous systems begin to develop, vision suffers.
A disease in which there is a lack of insulin production is called diabetes. It is of several types. In particular, the first type develops when the pancreas does not produce a sufficient amount of insulin, the second type is associated with the loss of sensitivity of cells to the action of insulin on them. The second type is the most common.
For the treatment of diabetes in the initial stages, a special diet and drugs are usually used, which either increase the production of insulin by the pancreas, or stimulate the cells of the body to absorb glucose by increasing their sensitivity to this hormone. If the pancreas completely stops producing insulin, it needs to be administered with injections. An increased concentration of insulin in the blood is called hyperinsulinemia. At the same time, the content of glucose in the blood drops sharply, which can lead to a hypoglycemic coma and even death, since the work of the brain directly depends on the concentration of glucose. Therefore, it is very important to control the sugar level during parenteral administration of insulin preparations and other drugs used to treat diabetes.
An increased level of insulin in the blood can also be caused by a tumor that secretes it in large quantities, an insulinoma. With it, the concentration of insulin in the blood can increase tenfold within a short time. Diseases associated with the development of diabetes: metabolic syndrome, pathology of the adrenal glands and pituitary gland, polycystic ovary syndrome.