Comprehensive metabolic panel
About the Test
The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) measures 14 analytes and calculates an anion gap. It provides important information about your body's chemical balance and metabolism. Metabolism is the process of how the body uses food and energy. This test is used to assess kidney or liver status, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose This comprehensive metabolic panel can also provide information about a patient's response to medications that would impact kidney or liver function. Most people get a CMP as part of their yearly checkup.
A CMP measures the following substances in your blood:
CMP liver tests
- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that is found in tissues throughout the body. It supports numerous biological processes and is most concentrated in the liver and bones.
- Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme that is primarily found in the liver.
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme present in the liver and other tissues of the body.
- Bilirubin is a waste product that is yellowish in color and is produced from the breakdown of red blood cells. The liver plays a central role in eliminating bilirubin from the body.
CMP kidney tests
- Urea or BUN (blood urea nitrogen): This is a measurement of urea nitrogen, which is a waste product that your kidneys help remove from your blood.
- Creatinine: This is a byproduct of muscle activity. It’s a waste product that your kidneys filter and remove from your blood.
CMP electrolyte test
Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge when they are dissolved in a liquid. These electrolytes in your blood control nerve and muscle function and maintain the acid-base balance (pH balance) of your blood and your water balance.
- Sodium is a type of compound known as an electrolyte. Electrolytes are minerals that promote healthy fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body. They also facilitate proper muscle and nerve function. Most sodium comes from your diet, and the kidneys help regulate your body’s sodium levels.
- Potassium: Potassium comes from the food you eat and is present in all tissues of your body.
- Chloride: Chloride functions along with sodium and potassium to control many processes in your body.
Other CMP tests
- Glucose, a type of sugar and your body's main source of energy. Elevated fasting blood glucose is often a sign of Type 2 diabetes. Very high glucose levels, whether fasting or not, usually indicate Type 1 diabetes.
- Calcium, one of the body's most important minerals. Calcium is essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles, and heart.
- Albumin, a protein made in the liver. It transports important substances through your bloodstream.
- Total protein is a measurement of the total amount of albumin and globulins, which are proteins in your blood.
Purpose of the test
A CMP is used to check several body functions and processes, including:
- Your liver and kidney health.
- Blood sugar levels
- Blood protein levels
- The acid and base balance in your blood.
- Fluid and electrolyte balance
- How your metabolism is working