Mycoplasma hominis, IgМ antibodies
Why this test?
- To confirm acute and ongoing infection caused by Mycoplasma hominis.
- To confirm asymptomatic carriage of Mycoplasma hominis.
- To diagnose the causes of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in women and men.
- For differential diagnosis of mycoplasma infection and other infectious diseases of the genitourinary tract with similar symptoms: chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, ureaplasma infection.
- For comprehensive diagnosis of the causes of infertility in women and men.
- For the diagnosis of mycoplasma infection in chronic inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract.
- For preventive examination during pregnancy planning and management to rule out Mycoplasma hominis infection.
In what cases is it prescribed?
- When clinical manifestations and diagnosis of the causes of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis in women.
- When clinical manifestations and diagnosis of the causes of urethritis, prostatitis, orchoepididymitis in men.
- When symptoms of an acute and ongoing pathological process caused by Mycoplasma hominis in women: mucous-purulent or bloody discharge from the genital tract, discomfort, itching, burning in the genital tract, lower abdomen, soreness during urination and during sexual contact.
- When complications of pregnancy in women: premature birth, miscarriage, endometritis.
- When symptoms of an acute and ongoing pathological process caused by Mycoplasma hominis in men: itching, burning, frequent urination, painful
- When planning a pregnancy to exclude Mycoplasma hominis infection - to both partners.
- If a chronic or persistent form of Mycoplasma hominis infection is suspected, which can be the cause of infertility, pregnancy pathologies.
Microorganisms Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) belong to the genus Mycoplasma, family Mycoplasma toceae. They occupy an intermediate position between viruses and bacteria, do not have a cell wall and are characterized by significant external polymorphism. The source of infection is a person suffering from mycoplasmosis or an asymptomatic carrier of M. hominis. The main route of transmission of infection is the sexual route.
Infection is also possible through the sharing of household items, organ transplantation, and vertical transmission from an infected woman to a child during pregnancy or childbirth. The incubation period is three to four weeks.
The causative agent of mycoplasmosis belongs to the conditionally pathogenic microflora and in certain quantities is part of the normal microflora of the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract. With increased reproduction of M. hominis, inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary tract may develop. In women, along with an increase in the number of Gardnerella vaginalis, a condition known as bacterial vaginosis develops.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis are most often non-specific, sometimes the infection can go on for a long time without clinical manifestations. In women, the pathogen M. hominis can also cause the development of urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and endometritis. These diseases are accompanied by mucous-purulent or bloody discharge from the genital tract, discomfort, itching, burning in the genital tract, lower abdomen, pain during urination and during sexual contact. Chronic infection with M. hominis can cause infertility, spontaneous abortions, and premature births. Premature birth, postpartum or postabortion endometritis are possible in pregnant women. When the infection is transmitted from the mother, the child may develop respiratory tract infections caused by M. hominis. In some cases, more serious complications are added: meningitis and neonatal sepsis. In men, M. hominis infection leads to urethritis, acute / chronic prostatitis, orchoepididymitis. These diseases can be manifested by itching, burning, frequent urges to urinate, painful urination, infertility.
The diagnosis of mycoplasma infection caused by M. hominis is based on a combination of anamnestic, clinical data and the results of laboratory examination. Modern methods of diagnosis of this infection include the detection of specific antibodies to M. hominis by the method of solid-phase immunoenzymatic analysis, as well as the determination of the genetic material of the pathogen by the polymerase chain reaction method.
Serological diagnosis is based on the detection of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to the causative agent M. hominis. The production of IgM antibodies begins in the first 6-7 days of the disease, then their number increases for two to four weeks, then gradually decreases and disappears after recovery. In the second week of the disease, the production of IgG class antibodies begins. In some cases, antibodies of the IgM class can be stored in blood serum for several months, as well as in people who are carriers of the infection without clinical symptoms of the disease. In case of detection of IgM antibodies, it is recommended to repeat their determination in a fresh blood sample in order to determine the increase in their number during the course of the disease.
It should be noted that in patients with a weak immune response to the influence of the causative agent M. hominis, in pregnant women, antibodies of this class may not be detected in the presence of infection. Therefore, additional determination and confirmation of the causative agent of mycoplasmosis by the polymerase chain reaction method is recommended.