Parvovirus (Parvovirus B19), PCR-quality
Why this test?
- For differential diagnosis of infectious erythema causes in children or polyarthropathies in adults.
- To diagnose the causes of acute or chronic anemia in patients with immunodeficiencies (in HIV-infected patients, recipients of donor organs).
- To diagnose the causes of dropsy in newborns.
- For the diagnosis of parvovirus infection in pregnant women and assessment of the risk of fetal pathology.
- To clarify the causes of transient aplastic crisis in patients with congenital forms of hemolytic anemia.
In what cases is it prescribed?
- With severe or persistent anemia in people with immunodeficiencies.
- In case of pregnant woman contact with parvovirus infected people.
- When the condition of patients with various chronic forms of anemia worsens.
- With infectious erythema in children.
- With joint syndrome and polyarthropathy of unclear genesis.
Parvovirus B19 is a DNA-containing virus from the Parvoviridae family that causes erythema infectiosum, joint damage, and chronic anemia. This infection is widespread, antibodies are found in 60% of the European population. The effect of the virus on the body depends on the hematological and immune status of the infected person. Parvovirus B19 multiplies in bone marrow cells, mainly destroying erythroblasts and reticulocytes, and also has a tendency to affect the endothelium of vessels.
The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets or, in rare cases, by transfusion of blood and its components. The incubation period ranges from several days to 2-3 weeks. Parvovirus enters the bloodstream on average 7-14 days after infection. An acute infection often proceeds like a mild cold, accompanied by general weakness, a temperature of 37-38 ° C, headache, dyspepsia, or proceeds latently, without causing any symptoms.
In children, parvovirus causes infectious erythema - characteristic redness of both cheeks and raised reticulated rash on the body and limbs. Rashes in some cases may persist or reappear for several weeks and worsen with exposure to sunlight, intense heat or stress. Erythema infectiosum is sometimes called the fifth disease, as it is one of the six most common diseases accompanied by a rash in children.
Adults with parvovirus infection may experience painful swelling of the joints, redness of the hands and feet, which usually go away on their own after a few weeks.
Parvovirus B19 is dangerous for people with iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and thalassemia. Virus infection with these hematological diseases can significantly worsen the course of the disease in connection with the intensive destruction of the erythroid sprout of the red bone marrow, the development of an aplastic crisis.
In people with immunodeficiencies on the background of HIV / AIDS after organ transplantation, chemotherapy, parvovirus infection can lead to ineffective treatment of chronic anemia.
When infected during pregnancy, the virus can sometimes penetrate the fetus and cause anemia, myocarditis. In rare cases, parvovirus B19 causes miscarriage (up to 9% of cases when infected in the second trimester), premature birth, dropsy of the newborn (in 10-20% of cases) and stillbirth.
The greatest threat of infection is in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy.
In most cases, the infection passes without treatment and does not cause significant consequences. Specific diagnosis of parvovirus B19 is rarely prescribed for children. Special attention is paid to people from the risk group - immunocompromised, pregnant, patients with chronic forms of anemia. Molecular genetic research allows detecting an active infection in the blood before the appearance of antibodies and is a highly sensitive and specific method of its diagnosis.