Analysis on the reticulocyte count
Why this test?
For differential diagnosis of types of anemia, as well as for determining the activity of erythrocyte formation processes in the bone marrow.
To determine the severity of anemia, together with this study, a general blood test should be performed, in which the number of erythrocytes and erythrocyte indices, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration are evaluated.
In what cases is it prescribed?
With a decrease in the total number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and with other signs of anemia or inhibition of bone marrow function.
The main symptoms of this are: pale skin, increased fatigue, shortness of breath, blood in the stool (a sign of chronic blood loss).
Also, the analysis is prescribed to monitor the treatment of patients with iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, kidney failure, and cancer.
If the number of red blood cells is increased (to assess bone marrow function).
Determination of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an indirect method of detecting an inflammatory, autoimmune or oncological disease. It is performed on a sample of venous or capillary blood to which a substance has been added that prevents it from clotting (anticoagulant). When analyzing ESR by the Panchenkov method, blood is placed in a thin glass or plastic tube and observed for an hour. At this time, erythrocytes (red blood cells), which have a large specific mass, settle, leaving a column of transparent plasma above them.
According to the distance from the upper limit of the plasma to the erythrocytes, the ESR indicator is calculated. Normally, erythrocytes settle slowly, leaving very little pure plasma. For this method, a Panchenkov apparatus is used, consisting of a tripod and capillary pipettes with a scale of 100 mm. Capillary photometry (automatic analyzers ROLLER, TEST1) uses the kinetic method of stopped jet.
At the beginning of the ESR analysis, there is a programmed mixing of the sample for the purpose of disaggregation of erythrocytes. Inefficient disaggregation or the presence of microclots can affect the final result, because the analyzer actually measures the kinetics of erythrocyte aggregation. At the same time, the measurement takes place in the range from 2 to 120 mm / h.
The results of measuring ESR by this method have a high correlation with the Westergren method, which is the standard for determining ESR in blood, and the same reference values. The results obtained when using the capillary photometry method, in the range of normal values, coincide with the results obtained when determining the ESR by the Panchenkov method. However, the capillary photometry method is more sensitive to increasing ESR, and the results in the area of increased values are higher than the results obtained by the Panchenkov method. An increase in the level of pathological proteins found in the liquid part of the blood, as well as some other proteins (so-called acute-phase proteins that appear during inflammation) contributes to the gluing of erythrocytes. Due to this, they settle faster and the ESR increases. It turns out that any acute or chronic inflammation can lead to an increase in ESR in the blood. The fewer erythrocytes, the faster they settle, so women have a higher ESR than men. The norm of ESR varies depending on gender and age.