Krążące kompleksy immunologiczne
Why this test?
For the diagnosis of diseases that develop according to the pathophysiological mechanism of type III hypersensitivity.
To clarify the pathogenesis of some allergic diseases, immune pathology.
For diagnosis and monitoring of autoimmune diseases.
To monitor chronic persistent infections.
To monitor glomerulonephritis.
To assess disease activity of immune complexes.
To monitor conditions accompanied by complement deficiency.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of diseases proceeding according to the mechanism of type III hypersensitivity.
In what cases is it prescribed?
When examining a patient with autoimmune pathology (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, reactive arthritis, vasculitis).
When examining patients with glomerular damage.
With joint syndrome, arthritis.
When monitoring patients with complement deficiency.
When examining persons with chronic persistent infection.
When monitoring the treatment of the disease of immune complexes.
During immunological examination.
Blood for research is taken only on an empty stomach;
On the eve of donating venous blood for research, fatty foods should be excluded from the diet;
Stress, emotional excitement, physical exertion (even climbing stairs) affect the conduct of tests and distort the results of research.
Before the blood sampling procedure, it is recommended to sit quietly for 15-30 minutes.
Medicines can affect the results of research.
Circulating immune complexes (CIC) are formed by the interaction of soluble antigen and antibodies in the blood. Normally, they are removed by the system of mononuclear phagocytes. Large immune complexes are destroyed in the spleen and liver. With an excessive amount of antigen, excessive formation of immune complexes and their ineffective elimination, a disease of immune complexes (type III hypersensitivity) may occur. At the same time, small immune complexes can accumulate in various organs and tissues, cause an inflammatory process and damage biological structures. The disease of immune complexes is mediated by the activation of the complement system, the formation of anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, the involvement of other cells of the immune system, and the infiltration of the site of CIC deposition. Most often, immune complexes are deposited in the endothelium of blood vessels, kidney glomeruli, and joints, which, accordingly, is manifested by clinical signs of vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and arthritis. The pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is closely related to the accumulation of immune complexes in tissues.
Long-term persistent infection can cause an increased concentration of CIC in the blood. Pathologies of immune complexes include serum sickness, which occurs when foreign serum is administered parenterally and mimics the effect of a persistent infection.
Determination of CIC in the blood allows to assess the activity of the disease, but does not reflect the amount of immune complexes deposited in the tissues. An increase in CIC is characteristic not only of a single disease, therefore, the results of the analysis must be interpreted in conjunction with clinical data and the results of other studies.