Wirus Epsteina-Barra (EBV), ilościowy PCR
Why this test?
For the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.
For differential diagnosis of herpes infections.
For differential diagnosis of tonsillitis.
To detect reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus during organ and tissue transplantation.
In what cases is it prescribed?
With clinical (hepatosplenomegaly, tonsillopharyngitis, swelling of the maxillary and cervical lymph nodes) and laboratory (atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood) signs of infectious mononucleosis in the early stages of the disease (before the antibody titer increases).
With HIV infection.
During immunosuppressive therapy after organ or bone marrow transplantation.
Depends on the biomaterial for research.
Epstein-Barr virus is a widespread virus of the Herpesviridae family that reproduces mainly in B-lymphocytes, but can also infect T-lymphocytes and epithelial cells. The way of transmission is airborne. Peak incidence - 15-25 years. The first contact with the Epstein-Barr virus occurs, as a rule, in childhood (up to 10 years), which causes the development of a latent asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection.
Infection in adults leads to infectious mononucleosis, which in most patients is accompanied by fever, intoxication, as well as damage to lymph nodes (lymphoadenopathy), palatine and pharyngeal tonsils. The liver and spleen are often enlarged, petechiae appear on the mucous membrane of the upper palate. Sometimes infectious mononucleosis is complicated by hepatitis, pneumonia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, rupture of the spleen, as well as cardiac (myocarditis) and neurological disorders (Guyenne-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, meningitis). In rare cases, a chronic active infection develops, in which the symptoms of the disease persist for more than 6 months after the initial infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, and there are also histological signs of damage to internal organs (pneumonitis, hepatitis, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, uveitis) and antigens or DNA are detected Epstein-Barr virus in tissues. In addition, with this condition, there are often very high titers of virus-specific antibodies. Conversely, with chronic fatigue syndrome, the titer of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus or other viruses is only slightly elevated.
The Epstein-Barr virus infects more than 90% of the healthy population and is stored in small amounts in memory B cells. Accordingly, about 90% of adults are virus carriers. The virus is stored in B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells throughout life and when immunity is reduced (for example, with HIV infection or immunosuppressive therapy) it can contribute to the development of lymphoproliferative diseases, nasopharyngeal carcinoma or - most often - infectious mononucleosis.
To detect the causative agent, the method of polymerase chain reaction is used, which allows to detect the DNA of the virus. The principle of the method is based on a multiple increase in the number of copies of a DNA region specific for this pathogen.